Anemia Burden, Types and Associated Risk Factors among Kenyan Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 and Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Co-infected Injection Substance Users
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BACKGROUND፡ Although injection substance users and individuals co-infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis suffer marked hematologic derangements, the rates, levels, morphologic types and associated risk factors of anemia among Human immunodeficiency virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis co infected injection substance users has not been reported in Kenya. METHODS: This cross-sectional study determined anemia rates, levels and morphologic types. Anemia was associated with clinical markers of disease- underweight, immunosuppression and viral load. Complete blood count, CD4 T-cell enumeration and viral load were determined via standard laboratory methods. RESULTS: All injection substance users had higher rates of anaemia (HIV+TB+ ISUs, 79.3%; HIV-TB+ISUs, 70.0%; HIV+TB- ISUs, 56.6% and HIV-TB- ISUs, 56.2%) relative to non-ISUs (16.6%; P<0.05). A significant proportion of HIV+TB+ISUs (47.8%) developed severe anemia than other clinical groups. The commonest morphologic type of anemia in HIV+TB+ISUs was microcytic hypochromic (43.5%) followed by normocytic hypochromic (17.4%) relative to the other clinical groups. HIV+TB+ ISUs with CD4 T-cells <200/uL (OR: 2.94, 95% CI: 1.41-6.13, P=0.004) and CD4 T cells of 200-349/uL (OR: 3.24, 95% CI: 1.66-6.31, P=0.001) associated with higher odds of developing anemia.