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dc.contributor.authorBustinduy, Amaya L
dc.contributor.authorSutherland, Laura J
dc.contributor.authorChang-Cojulun, Alicia
dc.contributor.authorMalhotra, Indu
dc.contributor.authorDuVall, Adam S
dc.contributor.authorFairley, Jessica K
dc.contributor.authorMungai, Peter L
dc.contributor.authorMuchiri, Eric M
dc.contributor.authorMutuku, Francis M
dc.contributor.authorKitron, Uriel
dc.contributor.authorKing, Charles H
dc.date.accessioned2021-06-04T09:41:36Z
dc.date.available2021-06-04T09:41:36Z
dc.date.issued2015
dc.identifier.urihttps://ir.tum.ac.ke/handle/123456789/17402
dc.description.abstractIn a study of children having polyparasitic infections in a Schistosoma haematobium–endemic area, we examined the hypothesis that S. haematobium–positive children, compared with S. haematobium–negative children (anti soluble worm antigen preparation [SWAP] negative and egg negative) have increased systemic production of pro inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-6, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-a) and decreased down-regulatory IL-10. A total of 804 children, 2–19 years of age, were surveyed between July and December 2009 and tested for S. haematobium, Plasmodium falciparum, filariasis, and soil-transmitted helminth infections. Plasma levels of IL-6, TNF-a, and IL-10 were compared for S. haematobium–positive and S. haematobium–negative children, adjusting for malaria, filaria, and hookworm co-infections, and for nutritional status, age group, sex, and geographic location. IL-10 was significantly elevated among children infected with S. haematobium, showing bimodal peaks in 7–8 and 13–14 years age groups. IL 10 was also higher among children who were acutely malnourished, whereas IL-10 levels were lower in the presence of S. haematobium–filaria co-infection. After adjustment for co-factors, IL-6 was significantly elevated among children of 5– 6 years and among those with P. falciparum infection. Lower levels of IL-6 were found in malaria–hookworm co-infection. High levels of TNF-a were found in children aged 11–12 years regardless of infection status. In addition, village of residence was a strong predictor of IL-6 and IL-10 plasma levels. In adolescent children infected with S. haematobium, there is an associated elevation in circulating IL-10 that may reduce the risk of later morbidity. Although we did not find a direct link between S. haematobium infection and circulating pro-inflammatory IL-6 and TNF-a levels, future T-cell stimulation studies may provide more conclusive linkages between infection and cytokine responses in settings that are endemic for multiple parasites and multiple co-infections.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherThe American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygieneen_US
dc.subjectCytokinesen_US
dc.subjectSchistosoma haematobiumen_US
dc.subjectPlasmodium falciparumen_US
dc.subjectParasitic Co-infectionsen_US
dc.titleAge-Stratified Profiles of Serum IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-a Cytokines among Kenyan Children with Schistosoma haematobium, Plasmodium falciparum, and Other Chronic Parasitic Co-infectionsen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US


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