|dc.description.abstract||Aedes aegypti is an efcient vector of several arboviruses of public health importance, including Zika
and dengue. Currently vector management is the only available avenue for disease control. Development of efcient
vector control strategies requires a thorough understanding of vector ecology. In this study, we identifed households
that are consistently productive for Ae. aegypti pupae and determined the ecological and socio-demographic factors
associated with the persistence and abundance of pupae in households in rural and urban Kenya.
We collected socio-demographic, environmental and entomological data monthly from July 2014 to June
2018 from 80 households across four sites in Kenya. Pupae count data were collected via entomological surveillance
of households and paired with socio-demographic and environmental data. We calculated pupal persistence within
a household as the number of months of pupal presence within a year. We used spatially explicit generalized additive
mixed models (GAMMs) to identify the risk factors for pupal abundance, and a logistic regression to identify the risk
factors for pupal persistence in households.
The median number of months of pupal presence observed in households was 4 and ranged from 0 to 35
months. We identifed pupal persistence in 85 house-years. The strongest risk factors for high pupal abundance were
the presence of bushes or tall grass in the peri-domicile area (OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.13–2.28), open eaves (OR: 2.57, 95%
CI: 1.33–4.95) and high habitat counts (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.21–1.66). The main risk factors for pupal persistence were
the presence of bushes or tall grass in the peri-domicile (OR: 4.20, 95% CI: 1.42–12.46) and high number of breeding
sites (OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.03–4.58).
We observed Ae. aegypti pupal persistence at the household level in urban and rural and in coastal and
inland Kenya. High counts of potential breeding containers, vegetation in the peri-domicile area and the presence of
eaves were strongly associated with increased risk of pupal persistence and abundance. Targeting households that
exhibit pupal persistence alongside the risk factors for pupal abundance in vector control interventions may result in
more efcient use of limited resources||en_US